Like in English, Japanese has present, future, and past tense. But, there is the exception. The exception is there is only past and present tense in Japanese. The present thense can also be used as the future tense, when used right.
Something that has already happened
2b are different. The only time they are different is when there is
a negative answer to a question.
The other concept such as past perfect is expressed using the past tense of the te form of the verb.
This is a small word of speech that shows the relationship of a sentence.
- be buying (progressive tense)
This kind of speech also can connect two clauses.
Shibuya ni itte gohan o taberu. - I go to Shibuya and eat.
The Japanese language also has a different negative conjugation. kaimasen - not buy
3. "To Be" verbs
The three words in Japanese that express, "to be" is: desu, arimasu, and imasu.
desu - equal, be
Anata no tokei ga okurete iru no desu. - Your watch is slow.
Shinguru rumu wa arimasu ka. - Do you have a single room?
wa hoteru ni imasu. - I am at a hotel.
The past lesson of adjectives, the i and na adjectives, have informal and formal styles, like with the male speech and female speech, in the past lessons. I tend to use the formal style, rather than informal. That doesn't mean you should do as I do, just do what you are comfortable with. You should still learn informal styles, because you don't want to look as if you don't know what you are doing. If you look up that word in the dictionary, it will always be presented in the informal form. The informal style, ironically, is sometimes called the dictionary form. The formal style is called the "-masu" form or "-desu" form. It is called that because the present tense of the verb is ending with "-masu" and the adjective ending will be "-desu".
The "-masu" form can be conjugated three ways, but, it depends on the verb. If the verb stem you have ends with the sound of, "-e" (tabE-ru) or "-i" (mI-ru), you should drop the "-ru" and add the "-masu" (tabemasu, mimasu). If the verb happens to end with another sound, like, kaku(to write) or yamu(to read), ect., then, drop the "-u" and "-imasu" (kakimasu, yomimasu, ect.). Some irregular verbs, such as kuru(to come) and suru(to do) conjugate to "kimasu," "shimasu," and so forth.
Now, with the "-desu" form, you just add "-desu" on the end of the adjective, whether it be a "i" or "na" adjective.
If you find yourself in a business or a school project, or even, when a speaker does not know much about the listener and cannot be sure whether it is appropriate to use the informal style, "-masu" and "-desu" should be said. When saying these words, "-masu" should be pronounced as "-mas" and "-desu" should be pronounced as "-des."
The informal style can be used, but, in the way of saying that the place you are at is only speaker to self, and, doesn't have to have listeners. Children often learn this form first, because, they do not know about the social hierarchy of life. Monologue uses this form, for obvious reasons.
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